QUALITY THEME: A PROJECT’S PURPOSE IS IN ITS PRODUCT
QUALITY TECHNIQUES PROVIDE A BLUEPRINT FOR STEERING OUTPUT PRODUCTION TO THE DESIRED RESULT.
TIP 25. Minimum requirements.
- Define a quality management approach, covering:
- Quality control, project assurance.
- How the management of quality is communicated.
- The roles and responsibilities for quality management.
- Explicit quality criteria specified for products in their Product Descriptions.
- Procedure for maintaining quality records.
- Recording of quality activities in some kind of a Quality Register.
- Specify customer quality expectations and prioritised acceptance criteria in the Project Product Description.
- Use lessons learned to inform quality planning, quality management, the definition of quality expectations and quality criteria.
- Produce and maintain management products – Quality Management Approach and Quality Register.
TIP 26. ROLES AND RESPONSIBILITIES UNDER THE QUALITY THEME:
- Approves the Project’s Product Description (in consultation with Senior Supplier, if appropriate) and the quality management approach.
- Confirms acceptance of the Project’s Product.
- Provides customer quality expectations and acceptance criteria, approves product descriptions for key user products, and provides user resources.
- Provides acceptance of the project’s product.
- Approves quality methods, techniques and tools for product development, and provides supplier resources.
- Documents the customer’s quality expectations and acceptance criteria.
- Prepares the Project Product Description and the Quality Management Approach.
- Prepares Product Descriptions.
- Produces the products to the specified quality.
- Assembles quality records.
- Manages quality controls and advises the project manager of the product quality status.
TIP 27. An objective of the QUALITY REVIEW TECHNIQUE is to BASELINE the product for change control purposes.
BASELINE = gain User acceptance.
TIP 28. QUALITY REVIEW TECHNIQUE = QUALITY PLANNING+QUALITY CONTROL.
QUALITY REVIEW + PRODUCT APPROVAL is done against Product Description and Quality Criteria.
PROJECT PRODUCT ACCEPTANCE is done against Project Product Description and Acceptance Criteria.
TIP 29. QUALITY AUDIT TRAIL includes:
- Customer quality expectations and acceptance criteria (Quality Planning).
- Project Product Description.
- Product (including Management Product) Descriptions.
- Quality Register.
- Quality Management Approach.
PLANS THEME: THERE’S MORE TO A PLAN THAN SIMPLY A SCHEDULE.
TIP 30. Minimum requirements.
- Ensure that plans enable the business case to be realised.
- Have at least two management stages including an initiation stage and at least one further stage.
- Produce a project plan for the project as a whole and a stage plan for each management stage.
- Use product-based planning for the project plan, stage plans and exception plans.
- Produce specific plans for managing exceptions.
- Define roles and responsibilities for planning.
- Use lessons to inform planning.
- Create and maintain plans, a Project Product Description (in the Project Plan), a Product Description for each product (in corresponding Stage Plans) and a Product Breakdown Structure.
- Product Flow Diagram is optional.
TIP 31. ROLES AND RESPONSIBILITIES UNDER THE PLANS THEME.
Executive/ Board – Approves project, stage, and exception plans with tolerances, and commits business resources to stages (e.g. finance).
Senior User & Senior Supplier – Ensures plans are consistent with their perspectives and commits resources to stages.
Project Manager – Designs the plans, prepares the project and stage plans and, if required, an exception plan.
Project Support – assist the Project Manager and contribute specialist expertise.
Team Managers – Prepare the team plans (optional).
TIP 32. THESE ARE THE THREE LEVELS OF PLANS:
- Project (costs, stages, controls).
- Stage (products, resources, activities).
- Team (optional).
- Exception plan is not a separate level.
TIP 33. Product-Based Planning.
- Project Product Description.
- Product Breakdown Structure.
- Product Descriptions.
- Product Flow Diagram (sequence of Project Product assembly).
TIP 34. Project Product Description and Product Description belong in the PLANS theme
TIP 35. Project Product Description is accompanied by Project Breakdown Structure that lists Configuration Items.
Each Configuration Item has its own Product Description including Quality Criteria.
TIP 36. This is the difference between Project Product Description and Product Descriptions.
Project Product Description includes
- quality expectations.
- acceptance criteria.
Product Descriptions include
- quality criteria.
- quality tools.
- quality review.
TIP 37. Types of MANAGEMENT PRODUCTS include:
- Baselines – Business Case; Project Initiation Documentation; Change Control, Risk Control, Quality Control and Communication Approaches.
- Records – Configuration Items Record, Daily and Lessons logs, Issue and Risk registers.
- Reports – checkpoint, highlight, issue, lessons, stage end, exception.
TIP 38. HERE IS WHAT A PLAN INCLUDES.
- Required products (product-by-product configuration of the Project Product).
- Activities, Dependencies, Resources necessary to produce each of the required products.
- Activities that manage Project Product creation – assurance, quality/risk/configuration management, controls, communications.
TIP 39. Updating PROJECT PLAN involves also updating the RISK REGISTER
Producing an EXCEPTION PLAN involves updating CONFIGURATION ITEM RECORDS.
STAGE PLAN is updated THROUGHOUT THE STAGE.
PROJECT PLAN is updated ONLY in MANAGING STAGE BOUNDARY process (regardless whether it is scheduled or triggered by an exception):
RISK THEME: MANAGEMENT OF RISK IS ALWAYS ORGANISATION-SPECIFIC
TIP 40. Minimum requirements.
- Define a Risk Management Approach, minimally covering:
- How risks are identified and assessed.
- How risk management responses are planned and implemented.
- How the management of risk is communicated throughout the project lifecycle.
- How to assess whether identified risks might have a material impact on the business justification of the project.
- The roles and responsibilities for risk management.
- Maintain a form of risk register to record identified risks and decisions relating to their analysis, management and review.
- Ensure that project risks are identified, assessed, managed, and reviewed through the project.
- Lessons are used to inform risk identification and management.
- Produce and maintain Risk Management Approach and Risk Register.
TIP 41. Roles and responsibilities under the Risk Theme.
Executive ensures that:
- The risk management approach is appropriate.
- The business case risks are assessed and controlled.
- Creates the risk management approach and the risk register.
- Ensures risks are identified assessed and controlled throughout the project.
- reviews risk management practices to ensure that they are performed in line with project’s risk management approach.
- participates in the identification, assessment, and control of risk.
- ensures that user risks are identified.
- ensures that supplier risks are identified.
TIP 42. Risks can be negative – THREATS and positive – OPPORTUNITIES.
Tip 43: ENHANCING an OPPORTUNITY is a separate type of RISK RESPONSE.
CHANGE THEME DEALS WITH PRODUCT CONFIGURATION AND PROJECT BASELINES.
TIP 44. MINIMUM REQUIREMENTS UNDER THE CHANGE THEME.
- Define a change control approach covering:
- How issues are identified and managed.
- How to assess whether identified issues might have a material impact on the business justification of the project.
- The roles and responsibilities for change control, including a defined change authority.
- Define how baselines are created, maintained, and controlled.
- Maintain some form of issue register to record identified issues and decisions relating to their analysis, management and review.
- Ensure that project issues are captured, examined, managed and reviewed throughout a project.
- Use lessons to inform change issues identification and management.
- Produce and maintain Change Control Approach and Issue Register.
TIP 45. Roles and Responsibilities.
- Determines the change authority and change budget.
- Makes decisions on escalated issues.
- Creates and manages the change control approach.
- Manages issue/change control procedures.
- Creates and maintains the issue register.
- Implements corrective actions.
- Escalates issues to the Executive.
- Implements corrective action as requested by the Project Manager.
- Escalates issues to Project Manager.
TIP 46. CHANGE MANAGEMENT PRODUCTS
- Configuration Management Approach
- Configuration Item Record
- Product Status Account
- Issue Report
- Issue Register
TIP 47. An ISSUE REPORT is generated from the Issue Register to accompany request for change, off-specification or problem/concern
It is updated FIRST to record DECISION and THEN to record decision IMPLEMENTATION.
TIP 48. FIVE activities included in CONFIGURATION MANAGEMENT PROCEDURE
- Change control.
- Status accounting.
- Verification and Audit.
TIP 49. FIVE steps of ISSUE AND CHANGE CONTROL PROCEDURE
TIP 50. Any “CHANGE” that is not imminent/ongoing means “RISK”.
Only a RISK that HAS OCCURRED becomes an ISSUE.
UNLESS risk action can be implemented within stage tolerance or risk budget.
TIP 51. MoSCoW – Mike-Sierra-Charlie-Whiskey
- Must have.
- Should have.
- Could have.
- Won’t have.
TIP 52. Management of issues
Issues are attributes of change.
There can be ONLY TWO REASONS for taking action on an issue.
- To introduce a new benefit.
- To ptotect an existing benefit.
- A REQUEST FOR CHANGE is proactive, it looks into the future.
- Ask for more info.
- OFF-SPECIFICATION is reactive, happens after the fact.
- Grant a concession.
- Ask for more info.
- PROBLEM/CONCERN – flagging, does not require immediate action.
TIP 53. Here is the SEQUENCE OF ACTIONS for handling ALL ISSUES.
- Check Configuration Management Approach.
- Enter into Issue Register.
- Categorize which of three types.
- Assess severity.
- Assess priority.
- Assess impact.
- Update Report with the DECISION and again with the result of IMPLEMENTATION.
PROGRESS THEME assesses if the project stands a chance of staying desirable, achievable and viable.
A purpose is to CONTROL UNACCEPTABLE CHANGE.
TIP 54. Minimum requirements.
- Define its approach to controlling progress in the Project Identification Documentation.
- Manage by stages.
- Set tolerances and manage by exception against these tolerances.
- Review the business justification when exceptions are raised.
- Learn lessons.
TIP 55. Roles and responsibilities.
Corporate, Programme Management, or Customer
- Provides project tolerances that are in the project’s mandate.
- Provides stage tolerances.
- Makes decisions on exception plans.
Senior User and Senior Supplier
- Ensures progress consistent with their perspectives.
- Authorises work packages.
- Monitors stage progress and produces highlight reports.
- Agrees work packages with project manager.
- Produces checkpoint reports.
TIP 56. PROGRESS theme is all about CONTROL = LOGS and REPORTS.
PROJECT (PROGRESS) CONTROLS are updated in Managing Stage Boundary process.
TIP 57. PROGRESS CONTROLS can be of two types – EVENT-driven and TIME-driven.
- Baselines: Project Plan, Stage Plan, Exception Plan, Work Package.
- Reviewing progress: Issue Register, Risk Register, Quality Register, Product Status Account, Daily Log
- Capturing/reporting lessons: Lessons Log, Lessons Report.
- Reporting progress: Checkpoint Report, Highlight Report, End Stage Report, End Project Report.
TIP 58. “EXCEPTION” means “TOLERANCE”.
Exception is a threat of deviation in excess of tolerance levels.
TIP 59. ESCALATION can also be predicated on an ISSUE REPORT rather than on an additional EXCEPTION REPORT.
The Executive has the discretion of going into an exception on the strengh of an issue report. This decision can save time and help to keep the project on track.
TIP 60. EXCEPTION PLAN is produced by the Project Manager ONLY on request from the Executive.
The Executive has various options for dealing with issues. For example, by adjusting tolerances. Creating an exception is typically not the first choice, it’s more like the last resort.
Preparing an exception plan without a request will infringe on the Excutive’s authority to decide on the preferable response.
TIP 61. Management by exception (a PRINCE2 principle) is expedited by setting the tolerances for SIX key performance areas (targets), at each level in the Organisation.
- Time, Cost, Quality – delivered to required specifications, on time and within budget.
- Scope, Benefits, Risk – TRADE-OFF aspects.
||Work Package level
PROCESSES ENSURE YOU’RE FLYING THE PROJECT BY THE BOOK. AND NOT BY THE SEAT OF YOUR PANTS.
TIP 62. The Starting Up a Project process (pre-project) is triggered by the project mandate.
At the end of Starting Up a Project process, the Project Manager sends to the Board (Executive) a request to authorize the Initiating a Project process together with the plan for the Initiation Stage.
TIP 63. Project Brief (including Project Product Description with Acceptance Criteria, Outline Business Case and stage plan for the Initiation Stage) is approved in the Directing a Project process.
Project Brief describes the project approach for the delivery of a chosen solution.
TIP 64. Outline Business Case responds to a Mandate from Corporate to Executive.
Transformation of the Outline Business Case OBC into detailed Business Case occurs in the Initiating a Project Process. It is approved at the end of the Initiation Stage.
TIP 65. The ESSENCE of the Directing a Project Process is AUTHORIZATION
The Board AUTHORIZES
- Next management stage.
- Exception plan.
TIP 66. The Initiating a Project process STARTS with the definition of tailoring requirements.
This is the correct implementation of the Tailoring principle.
TIP 67. In the Initiating a Project process, the Project Manager prepares Product Descriptions for MAJOR PRODUCTS that are included in the PROJECT PLAN.
In the Managing a Stage Boundary process, the Project Manager prepares Project Descriptions for LESSER PRODUCTS delivered during a stage that are included IN STAGE PLAN.
TIP 68. At the end of the Initiating a Project process, the Project Manager sends to the Board (Executive) a request to authorize Management Stage 1.
The Project Manager NEVER has the remit to deliver the whole project, but ONLY ONE STAGE AT A TIME.
TIP 69. Project authorization issued at the end of the Initiating a Project process means approval of the Project Initiation Documentation.
PID forms a “contract” between the Project Board (Executive) and the Project Manager.
TIP 70. After receiving a request to authorize project, the Board may (for a score of reasons) decide instead on premature closure.
Invoking this procedure is necessary because the project has already started.
A request to authorize project comes at the end of the Initiation Stage that is the first project stage.
And a live project can be closed ONLY by means of planned or premature closure.
TIP 71. INITIATING A PROJECT is BOTH a process AND a stage.
On the other hand, CLOSING A PROJECT is NOT a stage.
It is a PROCESS that comes at the end of the final Management Stage in the place of the Managing a Stage Boundary process.
TIP 72. Three-point estimating involves considering best case, worst case, most likely case.
TIP 73. A Work Package is typically described by activities that belong to responsibilities of the Project Manager and Team Manager roles.
Particularly in the case when the Project Manager assumes both these roles, Work Package can be also defined in terms of management products rather than activities:
Approved WP – Accepted WP – Executed WP – Received WP.
TIP 74. The Controlling a Stage process aims to ensure that:
- Products are delivered without scope creep.
- Products are delivered within tolerances.
- Risk and Issues are kept under control.
- Business Case is kept under review.
- Products are delivered to Time/Cost/Quality performance targets.
Are these tips exhaustive?
No, they are not. But I believe they will still grow your exam readiness.
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